Daoism 道学 and Daoist Religion 道教

Introduction to Daoism | Asia for Educators | Columbia University

Daoism | Chinese philosophy and religion | Britannica.com

Daoist Religion

  • Celestial Daoism
  • The Maoshan Revelations and Supreme Purity Daoism
  • Elixir Daoism
  • Alchemy

道教 from 全国宗教资讯网

道教與道家的同異- 蓬瀛仙館道教文化中心資料庫


Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove竹林七贤

(There are seven parts/videos for the topic “Seven Sages of the Bamboo-Grove” )

The seven sages of the bamboo grove refer to the seven famous scholars of the mid-third Century (during the Wei and Jin Dynasties): Ji Kang (嵇康), Ruan Ji (阮籍), Shan Tao (山涛), Xiang Xiu (向秀), Liu Ling (刘伶), Wang Rong (王戎), and Ruan Xian (阮咸) whom people called “the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove“. They were a group of outstanding writers, calligraphers, painters, and musicians who were viewed as embodying the values of naturalness and non-conformity.

竹林七贤是指魏末晋初 (240-250)的七位名士:嵇康阮籍山涛向秀刘伶王戎阮咸七人,有竹林七贤之称。

The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove – Cultural China


The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (with a boy attendant), in a Kano school Japanese painting of the Edo period

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (with Rong Qiqi) 《竹林七賢與榮啟期》

Related image


The Seven Sages (for Discussion of Each Image

Above is an image of the famous Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, along with the mythological folk  hero Rong Qiqi 荣启期.  Rong Qiqi was depicted as a recluse, who shuns material possessions and lives an ascetic life. The image is a rubbing of a tomb mural from around the turn of the fifth century unearthed near Nanjing.

  1. What does this image of each sage tell us about each sage and as a whole what were these sages viewed in the medieval world and what do you think they represent?
  2. What does it tell us about the tomb occupant?


  《竹林七贤和荣启期》砖印模画出土于南京市西善桥的南朝墓葬,分布在墓室的南北两壁,各由三百余块青砖拼嵌而成。 (from:http://www.ndlib.cn/jdfx/shuhuajianshang/201109/t20110928_53186.htm)

中國美術史–竹林七賢 (蔣勳) (Video in Chinese):

王西京1999年作 竹林七贤 纸本镜心

王西京1999年作 竹林七贤 纸本镜心 (from 竹林七贤(中国魏晋时期七位名士)_百度百科)


(from Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove – Wikipedia

The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove have inspired not only generations of poets, but also painters and other artists.

Xuan Xue 玄学 (Also called Neo Daoism or learning of Mystery)

“Learning of Mystery” (in Chinese,玄学 “xuán xué”)is Sometimes also called “Neo-Daoism”; it is a Daoistic movement which had developed during the Wei Jin period. It focused on the reinterpretations of the philosophical works of Zhuangzi  (庄子), Laozi (老子), and the Book of Change (易经), promoting the ideas of naturalness and spontaneity.

Naturalness:A Daoistic concept of central importance in the Learning of Mystery, justifying non-conformity to social norms on the basis that everything should follow of its own accord. (from ChinaX)

New Daoism and Xuan Xue

Neo-Daoism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)



Three Kingdoms 三国时代(220-280 C.E.)

The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin – East Asian History

Three Kingdoms: 220–280 CE. It is the period following the end of the Han dynasty when China was divided into three kingdoms: Wei (魏, Wèi), Shu (蜀, Shǔ), and Wu (吳, Wú). China was eventually reunified by Sima Yan, the founder of Jin Dynasty in 280 C.E.

In this post, you will learn about the three kingdoms, the key players in this period, and major battles responsible for the control of Cao Cao in the north and the formation of division of the three kingdoms.

Image result for 曹操 汉献帝 许昌


Guandu Battle (208 C.E.)firmly established Cao Cao’s leading position in the north after defeating his rival, General Yuan Shuai. After the battle, he successfully united the north in China.

Established their Empire:

Wei: 220 C.E. (Cao Pi–Cao Cao’s son–forced Han Xian Di 汉献帝 to abdicate his throne, and usurped Han, and changed the dynasty’s name to Wei 魏。)

Shu: 221 C.E.

Wu: 229 C.E.

Image result for red cliff battle

The battle of Red Cliffs:

Cause: Cao Cao attempted to unify China.

Cao Cao came down with 300,000 soldiers, fighting with the allied force of Liu Bei and Sun Quan (who only had 50,000 soldiers.)

Consequences: After the battle, Cao Cao was defeated and China was divided into three kingdoms.

Chinese Sources: